The Main Idea: Newton's Second Law
Newton's Second Law states that when an unbalanced force is exerted on an object, the object will accelerate in the direction of the force. It also states that force times mass equals acceleration (f x m = a).
A chain, or a pulley system, is an unbalanced force. Because it is an unbalanced force, it is able to change the roller coaster's motion and pull it up a hill. When the force is exerted on the roller coaster, the roller coaster moves uphill, in the direction of the force.
Newton's Second Law also states that
Words to Know
A force is a push or a pull that gives energy to an object.
An unbalanced force is a force in which the total force is in one direction - an unbalanced force changes the motion of the object to which it is applied.
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
Velocity is the speed in a given direction.